Presented at ASCCT 2022
Next Generation Risk Assessment (NGRA) using NAMs for skin sensitization: Reproducibility and precision of the GARDskin Dose-Response assay for PoD determination of fragrance chemicals.
Andy Forreryd1, Shashi Donthamsetty2, Paul Sterchele2, Xiao Huang2, Gregory Ladics2, Mihwa Na3, Isabelle Lee3, Anne Marie Api3, Robin Gradin1, Henrik Johansson1
1SenzaGen, Lund, Sweden , 2International Flavors & Fragrances, Hazlet, NJ, USA, 3Research Institute for Fragrance Materials. Woodcliff lake, NJ, USA
- GARD®skin Dose-Response can be used for continous predictions of skin sensitizing potency.
- The continous readout from the assay is reproducible and the assay predicts LLNA EC3 and human NESIL values with high correlation to reference benchmark data.
- The assay provides a nice tool for the fragrance industry to predict the NESIL value which can be used for conducting the quantitative risk assessment for generating the IFRA standard.
New Approach Methods (NAMs) for assessment of skin sensitizers have been adopted as Test Guidelines (TGs) by OECD. When combined into Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment (IATA) or defined approaches (DA), they provide data supporting hazard classifications and GHS potency subcategorization. However, more granular potency information, preferably on a continuous scale, is needed to derive a point-of-departure (PoD) for Next Generation Risk Assessment (NGRA).
GARDskin was recently adopted into OECD TG 442E to support discrimination of skin sensitizers and non-sensitizers. Continous potency predictions are derived using a modified protocol that incorporates dose-response measurements. Linear regression models have further been developed to predict LLNA EC3 and human NOEL values. The aim of the following study, which represents a cross-sector collaboration was to evaluate precision and reproducibility of the potency predictions from GARDskin Dose-Response in blinded studies.
Preliminary results from estimate of precision (n=36 materials) indicated that GARDskin Dose-Response predicted LLNA EC3/ human NOEL values with median fold-misprediction factors < 3.0 and < 2.0, respectively. Interestingly, LLNA predicted human NOEL with a fold-change > 2 in the same dataset. For reproducibility assessment, test materials (n=11) were evaluated in separate experiments (n=3), which generated highly reproducible results, with an average median range of fold-changes between replicates of 2.5.
Results from this study demonstrate that continous potency predictions from GARDskin Dose-Response are reproducible. Together with performance data, this represents a major step towards establishment of the assay as a relevant source of information to derive a PoD for NGRA, avoiding generation of new animal data.