In the context of skin sensitization testing, certain groups of chemicals are considered “difficult-to-test” using conventional cell-based methods. Examples of commonly recognised “difficult-to-test” samples include:
The GARD® solution
GARDskin has demonstrated broad applicability for various types of difficult-to-test samples. The scientific data is summerized in the OECD TG 442E.*
Supporting metabolic activation
GARDskin utilizes a dendritic-like cell line, expressing several metabolizing enzymes required for activation of pre/-pro haptens (e.g. ALDH, CYP, NAT-1).
A broad selection of solvents
The solubility for hydrophobic substances is further increased using an extended panel of non-polar solvents compatible with the test system.
GARDskin is highly sensitive, able to detect a minimum amount of substances dissolved in the cell medium.
Publications by collaborators: ExxonMobil
Greminger A, Frasca J, Goyak K, North C. Challenges integrating skin sensitization data for assessment of difficult to test substances. ALTEX. 2023 Oct 12.
Publications in collaboration with Lubrizol, Johnson Matthey and Corteva
Forreryd, A., Gradin, R., Humfrey, C., Sweet, L. and Johansson, H. (2022). Exploration of the GARD™ skin applicability domain: Indirectly acting haptens, hydrophobic substances and UVCBs. ALTEX.
Forreryd, A., Gradin, R., Rajapakse, N., Deag, E. and Johansson, H. (2022). The GARD™skin assay: Investigation of the applicability domain for metals. ALTEX.
Corvaro, M., Henriquez J., Settivari, R., Mattson, U.T., Forreryd, A., Gradin, R., Johansson, H. and Gehen, S. (2022). GARD™skin and GARD™potency: a proof-of-concept study to investigate the applicability domain for agrochemical formulations. Manuscript submitted.